How diabetes in pregnancy affects baby’s heart

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Researchers have discovered how high glucose levels – whether caused by diabetes or other factors – keep heart cells from maturing normally. Their findings help explain why babies born to women with diabetes are more likely to develop congenital heart disease.

Source: University of California – Los Angeles Health Sciences

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Chemical Toxicology and Pharmacology

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Chemical Toxicology and Pharmacology together is a growing field of science reflecting the studies of toxic and pharmacological effects of drugs on Environment, Human beings and Animals. Thus, living beings are more affects pertained to the action of chemicals, drugs, toxicologic/pathologic lesions.

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Chlamydia a type of STI caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis that passes through a vaginal, anal and oral sex. Many people with chlamydia experience no symptoms and the infection spreads throughout the body. Chlamydia can be treated easily with a short course of antibiotics that is  azithromycin and doxycycline.

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Psychiatric cases

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The Psychiatrists face few challenging cases in their career. Those real life cases are a medium for the psychiatry trainees to learn & grow. The identity of the patients is always altered or remains hidden. The cases are featured because most of them involve a diagnostic or therapeutic dilemma.

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Blunt Head Trauma and Effects

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Blunt head trauma can happen from a blow to the head, and result in serious damage to the brain. According to the National Institutes of Health, the impact can range from a minor bump to severe brain injury. According to, the majority of traumatic brain injuries (61 percent) occurs due to traffic accidents. Even if the head trauma does not result in an open wound, injury can occur to the brain. The effects of blunt head trauma are irreversible and severe, and can interfere with normal brain function.
Types: Two types of head trauma can occur: concussion and contusion. With a concussion, the brain is shaken, while a contusion causes direct injury to the brain. According to, the loss of consciousness from a blunt head trauma leads to even more damage to the brain. In addition, injury can occur to the opposite side of the brain—called contrecoupe—when the head is moving and hits a stationary object. This blunt force results in the opposite side of the brain pulling away from the skull and becoming injured.

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Head trauma

Adaptive Immune System

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Adaptive immune system also called as the acquired immune system, comprises of white blood cells, particularly lymphocytes. When it is presented with a new microbe or vaccine, it may take days or weeks to respond or adapt, but the resultant improves immunity or memory, which is sustained for long periods.

The major functions of the adaptive immune system include:

  • Recognition of specific “non-self” antigens in the presence of “self”, during the process of antigen presentation.
  • Generation of responses that are tailored to maximally eliminate specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.
  • Development of immunological memory, in which pathogens are “remembered” through memory B cells and memory T cells.

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Medicine Case Reports

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A case report is a detailed description of observations which are evidence based. In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports may contain a demographic profile of the patient, but usually describe an unusual or novel occurrence. Regardless, case reports do have genuinely useful roles in medical research and evidence-based medicine. In particular, they have facilitated recognition of new diseases and adverse effects of treatments. They also help understanding the clinical spectrum of rare diseases, as well as unusual presentations of common diseases. They can help generate conceivable mechanisms of disease.

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