Pharmaceutical science

Evolution of Cancer Stem Cells in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Targeting Via Novel Nanotechnology Approaches

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The cancer stem cell model is a hierarchical representation of the asymmetric division of cancer stem cells to form transit-amplifying cells, and ultimately differentiated cancer cells. The model can be applied to Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), a hematopoieticderived cancer. A single tumor population of AML is composed of a minor cancer stem cell subpopulation as well as the majority transit-amplifying cell population. Following treatment of AML with chemotherapy and radiation, the tumors repopulate, as the cancer stem cells remain to regrow the transit-amplifying cell population. This is supported by evidence of an increased number of cancer stem cell markers following relapse of AML, such as CD34, CD38, and CD45 surface markers. Cancer stem cells are therefore the focus of targeted cancer therapies, such as novel nanotechnology drug approaches, which improve speed and accuracy of drug delivery.

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Assessment of cytotoxic and endocrine potential of selected xenobiotics commonly present in food products

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More and more increased intensity of anthropo-pressure processes can be observed, among other things, in the release of great quantities of synthetic substances into the environment, including the Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDC). A vast number of chemical substances are considered to belong to the this group, including substances which occur naturally in the environment, such as mycotoxins and phytoestrogens, and substances which have been artificially released to the environment as a result of human activities (synthetic hormones, growth promoters, phthalates, bisphenols, metals, pharmaceutical residues, organochlorine compounds including PCBs). Taking into account the plurality and chemical diversity of the aforementioned compounds, it should come as no surprise that these substances are almost ubiquitous in various elements of the environment and in the food chain, in which they are subjected to bio-magnification. These chemicals are mainly suspected to contribute to the induction of neoplastic diseases such as the breast and prostate cancer, metabolic diseases, including obesity, genetic modifications and impairment of reproductive functions. They are also suspected to have mutagenic and cytotoxic effects and that they disrupt regulatory pathways of some organs. That is the reason why all attempts to broaden the knowledge of relations and mechanisms triggering the development of relevant diseases are justified.

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Importance of analytical methods to understand the complexity and diversity of protein aggregation

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In this 4 to 6 hours course the attendees will lear, based on biopharmaceutical case studies, about the complexity and diversity of the aggregation of peptide and protein drugs and on strategies to overcome these issues. The workshop will have the following parts: Part 1: Examples of protein aggregation mechanisms Part 2: Available techniques for detection of aggregation and impurities (leachables) and how these methods can be applied. Combining analytical methods to ensure detection of aggregates across a range of particle sizes. New technologies for characterization of aggregates will be presented. Part 3: Strategies for developing stable peptide drug formulations. High-throughput analysis (HTA) and high-throughput formulation (HTF) platforms will be presented. Using case studies, potential causes of aggregation and prevention strategies will be discussed. Part 4: Aggregation of biopharmaceuticals in human plasma depends on formulation: a new development and research field Part 5: Regulatory aspects and concerns.

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Release Kinetics of Cellulosic Nano particulate Formulation for Oral Administration of an Antiviral Drug: Effect of Process and Formulation variables

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Recently, researchers have increasing interest in cellulosic polymers for optimizing the efficiency of existing drugs utilizing better-designed drug delivery systems. In the present research nanoparticles were prepared using cellulose esters to obtain a drug product with a good oral bioavailability and biological half-life. Acyclovir (ACY) was formulated by combining the modified solvent evaporation/extraction technique, sonicator and high pressure homogenization approaches. Various formulation parameters such as sonication-time, concentration of cellulose esters and surfactants were studied. Nanoparticles were obtained with enhanced encapsulation efficiency, negatively charged, defined shape, size and with homogeneous size distribution.

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Preparation and Model Zwitterionic Drug Ciprofloxacin

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Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a quinolone derivative which is widely used for the treatment of a number of urinary tract infections. Both the experimental and theoretical results revealed that ionic and hydrophobic interactions are essential for salt formation and that the ionic interaction and/or hydrophilic interactions between CIP and amino acids molecules should be greater than hydrophobic interactions between CIP molecules. Future work will study the effect of the salts on the permeability behaviour of CIP across Caco-2 monolayers..

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Electrochemical preparation and characterization of gold nanoparticles graphite electrode: Application to myricetin antioxidant analysis

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Graphite has been an attractive material for electrochemical analysis due to it attributes in terms of its physical, chemical inertness and also because of its low cost, abundantly available, reusable and can be obtained in various forms such as rod, sheet, and flexible sheets. However its electrochemical properties are often a drawback when compared to other solid metal electrode, but this can be improved by surface modification of the graphite with noble metal nanoparticles. In recent years, antioxidant analysis by electrochemical techniques has been the focus of many studies; this is because the technique is sensitive, rapid and possible for field analysis. These advantages had overcome the problem of anti-oxidant analysis, which are sensitive to environment oxidation and therefore a fast analysis procedure is always preferable. In this present paper, we have carried out the electrochemical improvement of a recycled graphite electrode through an optimized procedure by electro-deposition of the gold nanoparticles on the graphite surface.

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R&D of electrochemical sensors & instruments in ELMAT & SKLEAC

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Fundamental electrochemical investigations in combination whatever with materials, environment, life science, and other disciplines, only those 3 possible & practical applications for the human being are available at the moment, such as new methods, devices and instruments. As known, electrochemistry technique is an important member in the whole family of the instrumental analysis. Especially, in coupling with other techniques, we can know much information about the interfacial interaction, structural features, reaction process, mass transfer, etc. during electrochemical running. Unfortunately, imported instruments & equipment occupies the leading position in China within the past decades, electrochemistry system is also still the world of imported products in China, such as Princeton, CHI, BAS, Gamry, Biologic, etc. Besides those electrochemical instruments, some typical and dailyused electrochemical sensors, such as blood glucose analysis, industrial control gas sensors, heavy metal ion monitoring, blood gas analysis, met the same problem in China. With the great increase of human industrial production, water quality analysis is becoming more and more necessary. A few typical electrochemical devices and methods for water monitoring, such as DO, COD, heavy metals, etc. have been developed successfully. In addition, various methods and sensors for bioanalysis & food analysis have been explored too.

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