Pharmaceutical science

Fast determination of bronopol in cosmetic products by vortex-assisted emulsification extraction combined with liquid chromatography

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Bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol) is an effective preservative employed in cosmetic formulations. However, under specific conditions, bronopol can decompose releasing low levels of formaldehyde and nitrites. These last compounds can react with any secondary amines or amides to produce significant levels of carcinogenic nitrosamines. The production of nitrosamines in cosmetic products has to be avoided. For this reason, although the use of bronopol is authorized in the current European Regulation, the maximum allowed concentration of bronopol in cosmetic products is 0.1%. Nevertheless, there is still no official method of analysis for the determination of this compound. The aim of this work is to propose a fast and simple analytical method to determine bronopol in cosmetic products. The proposed method is based on a vortex-assisted emulsification extraction, as one-step solution extraction process to prepare cosmetic samples, followed by liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection at 250 nm.

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Analysis of Single and Double Leg Squats in Professional Sports People Using Inertial Measurement Units

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The purpose of this study is to examine ankle, knee and hip movement in the sagittal plane and the knee movement in the coronal plane of professional sports people when performing both single and double-legged squats. The use of IMUs enabled accurate measurements in a routine training environment, with the potential for immediate feedback of the data to the trainer/coach/ player. One hundred and two football and fifty nine rugby players performed double leg squats and single leg squats on both legs. IMUs were mounted on the pelvis, thigh and calf of each leg and data captured when the players performed the squats at their training ground. The mean and standard deviation values were calculated and differences of flexion angles between footballers and rugby players were analysed using multi-variate analysis of variance (MANOVA) using SPSS. The results for the double leg squat gave the average hip, knee and ankle angles of 107°, 98° and 25° respectively for both rugby and football players. For the single leg squats there was no difference between the average hip, knee and ankle flexion on the dominant or non-dominant side.

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PET Imaging Agent could provide Early Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

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Activated macrophages, white blood cells that helps protect the body from harmful bacteria and infected cells, are known to play a pivotal role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development. Focusing on the translocator protein (TSPO), which is abundant in activated macrophages, researchers developed fluorine-18 (18F)-FEDAC, a radiolabeled ligand that targets TSPO and binds to it.

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Diagnosing Breast Cancer with an Imaging Pill

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For women, mammograms are a sometimes uncomfortable, but necessary, annual ritual. But this procedure doesn’t always provide accurate results, and it exposes women to X-rays. In a study appearing in ACS’ journal Molecular Pharmaceutics, scientists report that they have developed a non-invasive “disease screening pill” that can make cancerous tumors light up when exposed to near-infrared light in mice without using radiation. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women, according to the American Cancer Society. Mammograms are X-rays of breast tissue that can provide information about a lump’s location and size, but they can’t distinguish between cancerous and benign growths. As a result, up to one in three healthy women undergo unnecessary breast cancer treatments and procedures, according to a recent study by researchers in Denmark.

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Operating on Brain Gliomas by Detecting the Glow

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At Barrow they used a Scanning Fiber Endoscope (SFE) to detect the glow produced by adding the pro-drug 5-ALA to experimental models of malignant brain tumors. 5-ALA is metabolized in tumors to a fluorescent Porphyrin and is approved for administration to patients to increase the detection of the margin of invading brain glioma tumors, and thereby allow for a wider or more extensive brain tumor removal. SFE allows the neurosurgeon to visualize the fluorescent light produced by 5-ALA earlier and for longer periods of time than visually possible with a standard operative microscope. SFE offers sufficient image resolution to observe individual brain and tumor cells and the scanning feature reduces the photobleaching of the fluorescent signal which can be problematic in the operating room.

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Randomized Trial Finds Ibuprofen not a Safe Alternative to Antibiotics for UTIs

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More than half of all women will experience an uncomplicated urinary tract infection during life, and most of these infections resolve without further complications. A short course of antibiotics is a widely accepted standard for the treatment of bacterial urinary tract infection, but antibiotic resistance is a growing, serious public health problem. Some prior studies have suggested that treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen may support recovery of a urinary tract infection, raising the possibility that antibiotic use could be reduced. In the current study, the authors randomized 383 women from 3 Scandinavian countries with uncomplicated urinary tract infections to receive either standard treatment of antibiotics for 3 days, or ibuprofen as a symptomatic treatment without an antimicrobial effect. Women’s symptoms, bacterial growth from urinary samples, and the occurrence of adverse events including systemic infection or hospitalization, were monitored during the study. The results showed that women assigned to receive ibuprofen without antibiotics took three days longer to get well on average. 70 out of 181 patients receiving ibuprofen (39%) compared to 131 out of 178 receiving antibiotics (74%) recovered from symptoms by day 4 (35% adjusted risk difference, 95% CI). Also, among women in the ibuprofen group, twelve (6.6%) developed a febrile urinary tract infection, with a smaller proportion (3.9%) developing a serious kidney infection which did not occur in the antibiotics group.

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Portable Brain Imaging System to Shed Light on Concussions

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The device, a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), measures communication in the brain by measuring oxygen levels. When the brain is working well, major regions on each side of the brain are communicating and so have similar patterns of blood flow and oxygen levels in blood. Researchers measure the changes in blood oxygen levels as a marker of brain function. Results show these patterns change after concussion.

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