Long-term Outcome of Laser Photocoagulation Combined with Ranibizumab Intravitreal Injection in Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vein Occlusion
To investigate the efficacy of laser photocoagulation combined with ranibizumab intravitreal injection in macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion in long term.35 eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and 37 eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) treated with or without laser combined with ranibizumab were investigated in this retrospective study. Laser was conducted 7-10 days after the third ranibizumab injection if fluorescein angiography showed ischemic area. In BRVO, patients may receive both macular grid and local peripheral retinal laser. In CRVO, patients just received peripheral retinal laser. We estimated the changes in visual acuity, central retinal thickness (CRT), number of injections and laser over 14 months.
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Snoring is a common condition that can affect everyone, although it occurs more commonly in men and people who are obese. Snoring has a tendency to worsen with age. Snoring may occur at night or day times and besides this snoring can lead to serious health consequences like Sleep Apnea. Sleep Apnea is more associated with loud snoring followed by pauses in breathing. Some of the risk factors which may contribute to snoring include overweight, drinking alcohol, having a family history of obstructive sleep apnea or snoring. Sleep snoring can lead to Complications like day time sleepiness, frequent frustration or anger, greater risk of heart diseases, high blood pressure and behavioral problems.
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Hip Adduction and Abduction Strength in Male Elite Junior Ice Hockey Players with and Without a History of Groin Injury
Adductor muscle strain in ice hockey is a major problem associated with reduced hip strength. The aims of this study were to examine between-limb differences in hip adduction and abduction strength, and adduction/abduction strength ratios in male elite junior ice hockey players. Further aim was to explore whether these hip strength measures are related to a history of groin injury
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This study explored the spiritual growth experiences of nurses caring for terminally ill patients. Using the method of narrative study, we interviewed five nurses who used to care for terminally ill patients, and followed a semi-structured guideline for data collection. This study has passed the Institution Review Board (FYH-IRB-104-06-01-A) and data were collected from August, 2015 to February, 2016. The participants were interviewed twice individually and the second time of interviewing was assurance the data fit into the 4 principles of promoting width, coherence, insightfulness, parsimony. Data analysis was followed the model of “category- content” for narrative study.
The smile may be the most common and flexible expression, used to reveal some emotions, cover others and manage social interactions that have kept communities secure and organized for millennia. But how do we tell one kind of smile from another?
“When distinguishing among smiles, both scientists and laypeople have tended to focus on true and false smiles. The belief is that if you smile when you’re not happy, the smile is false,” says Paula Niedenthal, a psychology professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “But people smile in many different circumstances and during many emotional states. So asserting that only smiles that result from states of happiness are ‘true’ smiles limits our understanding of this important facial expression.”
Niedenthal and colleagues from Cardiff University and the University of Glasgow published a set of experiments that seek to expand our understanding of the human smile this week in the journal Psychological Science, showing three distinct, reliably recognized expressions — smiles of reward, affiliation and dominance — and describing the facial muscle combinations that make them.
Each smile hinges on an anatomical feature known as the zygomaticus major, straps of facial muscle below the cheekbones that pull up the corners of the mouth. But it’s not the only muscle at work.
Participants in the study looked at thousands of computer-generated expressions with random combinations of facial muscles activated — with one exception.
“We varied everything that could be varied in an expression, but our stimuli included some action from the smile muscle, the zygomaticus,” says Magdalena Rychlowska, a postdoctoral researcher at Cardiff. “We asked participants to tell us when they see a reward or affiliative or a dominance smile, and when the expression is not a smile.”
The researchers turned their participant-sorted smiles back on two more sets of observers, checking recognition and social messages until they had recipes for each smile.
For example, a reward smile — “probably the most intuitive,” Niedenthal says, “the kind of smile you would use with a baby, so he will smile back or do things you like” — is a symmetrical hoist of zygomaticus muscles plus a dash of eyebrow lift and some sharp lip pulling.
Affiliative smiles — used to communicate tolerance, acknowledgement, or a bond, and show that you’re not a threat — come with a similar symmetrical upturn to the mouth, but spread wider and thinner with pressed lips and no exposed teeth.
Dominance smiles are used to signify status and manage social hierarchies. They dispense with the symmetry, pairing a bit of lopsided sneer with the raised brows and lifted cheeks typically associated with expressing enjoyment.
“This facial expression has evolved to solve basic tasks of human living in social groups: Thanks, I like this. Don’t worry, I’m not going to hurt you. Hey, I’m in charge here,” Niedenthal says. “There are so many words people use to describe different smiles, but we see them as describing subtypes of a reward situation or an affiliative situation or a situation of negotiating hierarchy and having disdain for someone else.”
With precise physical descriptions of smile types, researchers can better classify subtypes and study the use and effects of smiles in pivotal human interactions.
“We now know which movements we should look for when we describe smiles from real life,” says Rychlowska. “We can treat smiles as a set of mathematical parameters, create models of people using different types of smiles, and use them in new studies.”
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RA is the most mutual prolonged systemic autoimmune disease, with a difficult dominance in women, proposing female hormonal factors play a character in the growth of the disease. However, many arguments still exist. The object of this analysis was to consider data from modern enquiry regarding female hormonal factors and their suggestion with RA disease enlargement. The study of female hormonal factors is stimulating because serum levels may contrast during a woman’s lifetime and cooperate with countless environmental, immunological, genetic and endocrine factors persuading the enlargement of autoimmunity. As some female hormonal factors may be possibly changeable, thoughtful their influence on RA enlargement is clinically significant and may effect in specific protective mediations in high-risk residents.