Skin Cancer on the Rise

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The researchers report that, between 2000 and 2010, squamous cell carcinoma (also called cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma) diagnoses increased 263 percent, and basal cell carcinomas increased 145 percent. They compared the 2000-2010 period to two other segments of time: 1976-1984 and 1985-1992.

Women 30-49 experienced the greatest increase in basal cell carcinoma diagnoses; whereas, women 40-59 and 70-79 experienced the greatest increase in squamous cell carcinomas.

Men had an increase in squamous cell carcinomas between the first and second time period studied (1976-1984 and 1985-1992), but experienced a slight decline in the 2000-2010 period. However, for basal cell carcinomas, men over 29 showed similar increases in diagnoses in the 2000-2010 period than the two earlier periods.

 

Muscle Movement During Smile

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The smile may be the most common and flexible expression, used to reveal some emotions, cover others and manage social interactions that have kept communities secure and organized for millennia. But how do we tell one kind of smile from another?

“When distinguishing among smiles, both scientists and laypeople have tended to focus on true and false smiles. The belief is that if you smile when you’re not happy, the smile is false,” says Paula Niedenthal, a psychology professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “But people smile in many different circumstances and during many emotional states. So asserting that only smiles that result from states of happiness are ‘true’ smiles limits our understanding of this important facial expression.”

Niedenthal and colleagues from Cardiff University and the University of Glasgow published a set of experiments that seek to expand our understanding of the human smile this week in the journal Psychological Science, showing three distinct, reliably recognized expressions — smiles of reward, affiliation and dominance — and describing the facial muscle combinations that make them.

Each smile hinges on an anatomical feature known as the zygomaticus major, straps of facial muscle below the cheekbones that pull up the corners of the mouth. But it’s not the only muscle at work.

Participants in the study looked at thousands of computer-generated expressions with random combinations of facial muscles activated — with one exception.

“We varied everything that could be varied in an expression, but our stimuli included some action from the smile muscle, the zygomaticus,” says Magdalena Rychlowska, a postdoctoral researcher at Cardiff. “We asked participants to tell us when they see a reward or affiliative or a dominance smile, and when the expression is not a smile.”

The researchers turned their participant-sorted smiles back on two more sets of observers, checking recognition and social messages until they had recipes for each smile.

For example, a reward smile — “probably the most intuitive,” Niedenthal says, “the kind of smile you would use with a baby, so he will smile back or do things you like” — is a symmetrical hoist of zygomaticus muscles plus a dash of eyebrow lift and some sharp lip pulling.

Affiliative smiles — used to communicate tolerance, acknowledgement, or a bond, and show that you’re not a threat — come with a similar symmetrical upturn to the mouth, but spread wider and thinner with pressed lips and no exposed teeth.

Dominance smiles are used to signify status and manage social hierarchies. They dispense with the symmetry, pairing a bit of lopsided sneer with the raised brows and lifted cheeks typically associated with expressing enjoyment.

“This facial expression has evolved to solve basic tasks of human living in social groups: Thanks, I like this. Don’t worry, I’m not going to hurt you. Hey, I’m in charge here,” Niedenthal says. “There are so many words people use to describe different smiles, but we see them as describing subtypes of a reward situation or an affiliative situation or a situation of negotiating hierarchy and having disdain for someone else.”

With precise physical descriptions of smile types, researchers can better classify subtypes and study the use and effects of smiles in pivotal human interactions.

“We now know which movements we should look for when we describe smiles from real life,” says Rychlowska. “We can treat smiles as a set of mathematical parameters, create models of people using different types of smiles, and use them in new studies.”

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Formation of Melanoma Tumors

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Researchers at the University of Iowa did just that, documenting in real time and in 3-D how melanoma cells form tumors. The cells waste no time finding their cancerous cousins, slashing their way through a lab-prepared gel to quickly join other melanoma cells and form tumors.

Biology professor David Soll and his team used unique computer-assisted 3-D reconstruction software to chronicle how both breast tissue cancer cells and melanoma cells form tumors. The group found the two cancers act similarly in the joining stages of tumor formation. With that knowledge, they screened more than four dozen monoclonal antibodies — unique agents that can stop cells from growing or forming tumors and can be mass produced — before finding two that block tumor creation in both types of cancer.

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Pharmacophore Modeling, 3D-QSAR, and Docking Study

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Phosphodiesterases 4 enzyme attracts the target for the designing of anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator agents. In many studies pharmacophore and atom based 3D-QSAR studies were carried out for pyrozolo[1,5-a]pyridine/4,4-dimethylpyrazolone analogues.

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Validation of Stability using the Chromatography Method

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Many studies were depicted the development of a validated reversed-phase HPLC method for the determination of the primary drug in thepresence of degradation products or pharmaceutical excipients. The separation is carried out on Hypersil BDS C18 column having particle size 5 μ using acetate buffer.

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Get the Best Results From Beauty Products

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It is certainly not from exotic ingredients or brand-name only products. Obtaining great results depend on having a complete skin care routine. This routine should consist of skin-compatible products, targeted for your desired results. For example, if acne is your main focus, purchase products that combat acne. If lines and wrinkles are bothering you, don’t overload and complicate your product usage. Choose items that target your issues.

It’s actually that simple. Complete skin care means you ‘dot the essential I’s and cross the essential T’s’. And here’s where you start.

  • Cleanse skin to prepare it to absorb corrective actives.
  • Correct skin problems by choosing specific products designed to achieve your results.
  • Hydrate to maintain skin health.
  • Protect from damaging UV rays that lead to wrinkles and uneven skin pigment.

Ensure each step includes quality products. This is the secret to skin care that is repeatedly missed. Don’t be deceived by advertising claims enticing you to the latest and greatest! Learn why complete skin care is important.

While you’re at it, see my advice pages below. They will guide you to creating an effective routine for the results you want!

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Radiation dermatitis

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Irritant contact dermatitis accounts for 80% of all contact dermatitis reactions. It occurs when the skin comes in contact with a substance that acts as an irritant. Even though over 2800 substances have been identified as irritants, almost any substance under the right circumstances can act as an irritant.

Skin Barrier in Irritant Contact Dermatitis
The epidermis acts as a barrier with an outer layer composed of dead cells in a water-protein-lipid matrix.

Acute Irritant Contact Dermatitis
Acute irritant contact dermatitis occurs when the skin comes in contact with a strong toxic chemical such as an acid or alkali. The rash occurs within minutes to hours after exposure and in most cases, healing occurs soon after exposure. This rash usually has sharp borders and consists of redness, vesicles, bullae, or skin sloughing.

  • Picture of irritant contact dermatitis on the foot

Chronic Cumulative Irritant Contact Dermatitis
Chronic cumulative irritant contact dermatitis is the more common of the two. This dermatitis occurs after repeated exposure to low-level irritants, such as soaps or shampoos. The rash may take weeks, months, or even years to develop.

The rash usually has poorly-defined borders, is very itchy, and consists of redness, scaling, fissuring, and lichenification.

  • Picture of irritant contact dermatitis on the hand

Treatment of Irritant Contact Dermatitis
The mainstay of treatment for irritant contact dermatitis is avoiding as many of the irritants as possible.

Other helpful measures include:

  • Reduce water exposure – because frequent water exposure actually dries out the skin and disrupts the barrier function of the epidermis, keep water contact to a minimum.
  • Moisturize – Frequent moisturization improves the barrier function of the skin. Avoid the use of moisturizers with perfumes since these may also act as an irritant.
  • Protection – Because the hands are often affected by irritant contact dermatitis, the use of gloves may help reduce exposure to the irritant.
  • Topical steroids – Medium- to high-strength topical steroids may be needed to reduce inflammation and itching.

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Role of Nanoparticles in Targeted Drug Delivery

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The use of nanotechnology in medicine and more specifically drug delivery is set to spread rapidly. Currently many substances are under investigation for drug delivery and more specifically for cancer therapy.

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The Significance of Beards

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Facial hair is in right now, whether it’s a subtle five o’clock shadow, a goatee, a full Duck Dynasty beard or some other variation. But beards haven’t always been this popular, and they’ve represented more than just fashion trends and primitive ways to protect your skin.

Going back to the Dynastic period in Egypt, facial hair was seen as a low class sign of animal tendencies. Men even went as far as removing their eyelashes!

As time went on, beards grew in favor. In ancient Greece, for example, beards were seen as signs of virility, manhood and wisdom. They were cut only during a time of mourning or as a form of punishment to Spartans.

The ancient Romans decided to distinguish themselves from the Greeks by being clean-shaven. It was so important to Roman culture that religious ceremonies were held when boys shaved for the first time.

By the years 330 – 1750 in Europe, facial hair had mixed support. While knights maintained beards as a sign of masculinity and honor, King Henry VIII and Queen Elizabeth weren’t fans, at least on those they ruled. King Henry kept his beard while everyone else had to pay a tax for growing one.

Forward ahead to the early 1900s in America and facial hair was not in vogue. Soldiers in WWI couldn’t have beards because they could interfere with gas masks. This led to a no-beard trend that continued until after WWII. Beards eventually made a comeback years later when they were sported by hippies and the Beatles.

Religions have different views on the topic. Christians didn’t depict Jesus with a beard until 500 CE, and early popes and bishops opposed beards. In Islam, beards are seen as an indicator of religious devotion to the Qur’an. Meanwhile, most Jewish men learn that Leviticus 19:27 maintains they can only trim and remove facial hair with scissors or, in modern times, an electric razor.

Politicians typically avoid beards because historically it was a sign of protest and later it suggested opposition to women’s issues. While many sports clubs used to have a less-than-favorable view of beards, that has changed in recent years. In 2015, more professional baseball players had beards than not.

Today, facial hair is popular enough that there is a World Beard and Mustache Championship and hipster men in New York have been known to pay more than $8,000 for facial hair transplants to fix less-than-perfect beards.

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Men With Hair Loss

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It’s a significant riddle technology has yet to completely solve, but there’s definite progress. Male pattern baldness is that mysterious condition that has enormous social significance but almost no medical significance and it’s been a great boon to the baseball cap industry, of course.

In this survey, we take the pulse of American men who have experienced hair loss, to understand three primary things: how men respond to that hair loss (with treatments or lack thereof), what motivates their responses, and how they feel about the subject overall.

The first order of business for us was to establish how much hair men are losing. Between thinning hair and more significant hair loss that results in bald spots, widow’s peaks and full baldness, it’s a fifty-fifty split. Among the half of men experiencing more severe hair loss, 43 percent report having a bald spot or widow’s peak and seven percent report they are fully bald. Naturally, the response to hair loss is informed by the amount of hair that’s been lost, so it’s important to keep these baselines in mind.

Surprising or not, a majority of men do very little to address their hair loss (particularly in the Northeast)—50 percent have responded by cutting their hair short or shaving it all off, while an additional one in four men don’t do anything different as their hair begins to disappear.

The least likely response is to go under the knife—just one percent of men undergo hair transplant surgery. Much more popular are shampoo treatments and medications like Rogaine and Propecia, the former being a spray, the latter being oral medication.
Guys on the West Coast are by far the most likely to explore over-the-counter treatments—nearly twice as many men experiencing hair loss on the West Coast have tried shampoos, than men in the Northeast. West Coast men are also most likely to have used sprays or medications: 34 percent on the West Coast have tried, versus an average of 18 percent throughout the rest of the country.

What motivates a particular guy’s response to his hair loss? Well, it’s not all about sex appeal. The most common answer was that doing something about it makes men feel more confident (sex appeal aside). That said, one in four men copped to wanting to enhance his sex appeal. Just behind that, statistically, was a desire to “fit in.” And the reasons men were least likely to cite as motivators to do something about their hair loss? It’s important to their work… or their significant other.

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Hydrogels Incorporated with Cancer Medicines

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Electric-field sensitive hydrogels are of great interest for many researchers from the aspects of their usage in several biomaterials applications. Controllable drug release under various voltages offers huge benefits for the controlled drug delivery systems. Electrically sensitive polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels loaded with methotrexate (MTX) and other compounds were prepared via a solution casting process, and characterized through various techniques.

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Homology Modeling of Versatile Peroxidases from Pleurotus sapidus Reveals Residues for Site Directed Mutagenesis to Enhance the Bioremediation Ability

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Ligninolytic enzymes have potential applications in many fields and they are involved in the degradation of various xenobiotic compounds and dyes. Versatile peroxidases, a fungal enzyme, are industrially attractive and their applications have expanded to the field of bioremediation. Designing an enzyme that have higher catalytic activity, stability and fitting well with the required conditions are one of the challenges of today’s biotechnology. Versatile peroxidases are known to efficiently oxidize non-natural substrates like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The accessibility of the PAHs to microbial cells is less. Hence by increasing the hydrophobicity of versatile peroxidases, the chance of the enzyme to meet the hydrophobic substrates such as PAHs in a contamination site can be increased. We have used an insilico approaches for optimal designing of versatile peroxidase to enhance its bioremediation ability.

http://www.scitechnol.com/homology-modeling-of-versatile-peroxidases-from-pleurotus-sapidus-reveals-residues-for-site-directed-mutagenesis-to-enhance-the-bioremediation-ability-iGg7.php?article_id=2558

A Unified Bug Testing Software for Biological and Other Systems

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Automatic bug testing is very crucial for software systems that are widely used. This is especially true when the system is very complex. Unexpected and undesired events could happen due to the presence of bugs. For instance, a web system might take a very long time on a specific query because of the presence of a bug. We cannot expect the creators of the web system to be continually monitoring the system looking for such events. It will greatly benefit the creators of the web system if such events can be automatically detected and if they are notified in a timely fashion. In this paper we report one such bug testing software that we have created for the MnM web system for motif search. MnM is widely used by biologists all over the globe. We feel that the architecture we have employed for our bug testing software is generic and can be applied to other software systems as well. There exist numerous conventional bug testing software tools which are designed to perform only functional or graphical user interface testing.

http://www.scitechnol.com/a-unified-bug-testing-software-for-biological-and-other-systems-XEt4.php?article_id=2557

A Rarely Seen Entity: Morbus Morbihan Disease

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Morbus Morbihan disease is granulomatous complication characterized with facial edema occuring due to acne or rosacea. It is resistant to treatment; diagnosis could be difficult. 48 years old male patient applied to our polyclinic with complaint of swelling on left side of his face, around his eye and cheeks, persistent for 6 months. He previously applied to dermatology, dental and Otorhinolaryngology departments in various hospitals but no diagnosis could be made. There was no trauma, exposure to sun, drug use history or symptoms like pain and itch. He was complaining about visual swelling. He had edema stretching from left side of his face to orbital area and mild erythema in his dermatological examination. Our pathology department reevaluated biopsy preparations taken by the center he previously went. Rosacea lymphedema was reported. Doxycycline, ornidazole, ketotifen and flutamide were administered by assuming that patient has Morbus Morbihan disease. In the next examination after one month, it has been observed that edema was diminished. In fourth month, edema decreased a lot. Thus treatment was stopped. The patient was applied again in the following 2 months due to increase at edema on his face. That time 0.5 mg/day isotretinoin treatment started and at third month edema regressed. We found this case appropriate to present to emphasize that it is rare and that it should be considered.

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Healthcare Demographics and Specialty Variation in Atopic Dermatitis

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Importance: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin disease with significant comorbidities and a dramatic impact on quality of life. Despite this, there is little-published information about healthcare utilization patterns for adults and children with AD.
Objective: To examine healthcare utilization for patients with AD who are cared for in a regional academic medical center.
Design: Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting: A mixed urban, suburban and rural catchment in the Western NY region.
Participants: All patients seeking medical care for their AD from March of 2011 to September 2015.
Main Measure(s): Age, sex, race, ethnicity, (demographics) and medical specialty (healthcare utilization). Patients were stratified and analyzed by age group.
Results: Adult AD patients (n=767) accounted for 38.2% of the AD population seeking healthcare in our system with a mean age of 42.7 ± 18.7 years. Among adults, females were seen more commonly than males (65.3% vs. 34.7%). In contrast, both genders were equally represented in the pediatric population (18 years; 35.2%). Dermatologists cared for the majority of patients (35.2%), followed by pediatricians (25.7%) and family medicine physicians (10.1%). African-Americans were nearly 3 times more likely than Caucasians to visit primary care physicians for their initial AD management (p<0001).
Conclusions and relevance: This study demonstrates that adult AD patients account for over a third of all AD visits in a regional academic medical center. Dermatologists managed the greatest number of AD patients, and the pediatric population was notable for a greater proportion of African American patients relative to the adults. This disparity between the proportions of African Americans in pediatric vs adult patients may reflect reduced access to care for adults. Alternatively, African-Americans may simply have a greater prevalence of pediatric onset AD coupled with greater disease resolution prior to adulthood. African-Americans also appear to seek

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Ways to Treat Damaged Hair in Winter

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It’s been a rough winter for most of the country. When you’ve got arctic temperatures and gusting winds you’ve also got low humidity in the air. And low humidity not only dries out your skin but also dries out your #hair. If your hair is feeling dry and brittle and is seeking the summer warmth, then read on.

Here are four tips to help you repair your damaged winter hair:

1. Reduce shampooing. Shampooing every second or third day will allow natural oils to remain on your hair and scalp and prevent further drying.

2. Go deep. Once to twice a week, massage a deep conditioner into your hair and scalp and let it rest as you shower. Then rinse with warm water. For extremely dry hair, try using a leave-in deep conditioner or conditioning hair mask that you apply before bedtime and rinse the following morning. Be sure to wear a hair net and to place a towel on your pillow so you don’t stain your bed sheets.

3. Go natural. Using hair dyers and other heating devices take a toll on your hair. When possible, allow your hair to air-dry, but aim for at least once to twice a week.

4. Cool off. Some women who chemically treat their hair (think highlights) and use heating devices regularly (think flatirons), develop trichorrhexis nodosa, or hair breakage. Once hair is broken, you can’t fix it. You can minimize additional damage by reducing usage of heating devices. Try every second or third day instead of every day.

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Hydrology: Asian glaciers

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Water stress makes some region vulnerable economically and socially to drought, but glaciers are a uniquely drought-resilient source of water. The studies show that these glaciers provide summer meltwater to rivers and aquifers that is sufficient for the basic needs of 136 million people, or most of the annual municipal and industrial needs of Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. During drought summers, meltwater dominates water inputs to the upper Indus and Aral river basins.

Kindly submit your recent research in Hydrology & Geological Studies at editor.jhhe@scitechnol.com

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Constipation in Children

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​​Bowel patterns vary from child to child just as they do in adults. Most children have bowel movements 1 or 2 times a day. Other children may go 2 to 3 days or longer before passing a normal stool.Children with constipation may have stools that are hard, dry, and difficult or painful to pass. These stools may occur daily or be less frequent. Although constipation can cause discomfort and pain, it’s ­usually temporary and can be treated.

Constipation is a common problem in children. It’s one of the main reasons children are referred to a specialist, called a pediatric gastroenterologist.

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Examining the nursing faculty shortage

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It found that nurses are not pursuing advanced degrees in sufficient number to meet the demands for nurses in faculty and advanced practice roles. According to the paper schools of nursing cite a lack of qualified nursing faculty as a primary barrier to program expansion.The study followed a total of over 8,000 nurse graduates from North Carolina for 10 or 20 years starting in 1984 or 1994 and examined how they were using available educational pathways to acquire the degrees necessary for teaching.

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Nursing students dressed in white

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Nursing, on the other hand, is traditionally female. Nurses, despite their indispensable role in health care, are traditionally subordinate to doctors, a role made explicit by doctors giving “orders” and nurses following them.Nurses have taken on a much more complex and diverse set of roles over the last several years. Critical care nurses and nurse anesthetists are some of the most highly trained and highly skilled of medical professionals.

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Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

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Childhood arthritis is called juvenile arthritis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It is also referred to as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), though that is an older term.

Juvenile arthritis is actually not just one condition.

Many things can cause arthritis in children, including infections (septic arthritis), reactions to infections (reactive arthritis), and other conditions.

There are many different types of juvenile idiopathic arthritis too, including:

Systemic arthritis
Oligoarthritis – only 1 to 4 joints are affected during the first six months
Polyarthritis – can be either rheumatoid factor negative or positive – 5 or more joints are affected during the first six months
Psoriatic arthritis
Enthesitis-related arthritis – have inflammation where a tendon inserts onto a bone
Undifferentiated arthritis etc.

For more information visit: https://www.scitechnol.com/research-journal-clinical-pediatrics.php

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Long-term Outcome of Laser Photocoagulation Combined with Ranibizumab Intravitreal Injection in Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vein Occlusion

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To investigate the efficacy of laser photocoagulation combined with ranibizumab intravitreal injection in macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion in long term.35 eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and 37 eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) treated with or without laser combined with ranibizumab were investigated in this retrospective study. Laser was conducted 7-10 days after the third ranibizumab injection if fluorescein angiography showed ischemic area. In BRVO, patients may receive both macular grid and local peripheral retinal laser. In CRVO, patients just received peripheral retinal laser. We estimated the changes in visual acuity, central retinal thickness (CRT), number of injections and laser over 14 months.

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http://www.scitechnol.com/international-journal-of-ophthalmic-pathology.php

Combined Melanocytic Nevus with Common Nevus and Clonal/Inverted Type A Nevus in Conjunctiva-A Case Report

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Herein, we report a case of conjunctival clonal/inverted type A nevus with mild atypia. A 24-year-old female presented with a pigmented lesion of the left conjunctiva and plica semilunaris which had grown and increased in pigmentation for approximately eight weeks. An excisional biopsy was performed to rule out atypia, infection, and melanoma. Histological examination revealed a clonal/inverted type A nevus with mild atypia. This is a relatively rare but benign entity which may occasionally cause diagnostic confusion with melanoma.

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http://www.scitechnol.com/international-journal-of-ophthalmic-pathology.php