Gene Expression Profile Analysis and Identification of the Effects Triggered by Essential Sandalwood Oil on Human Skin Explants
Sandalwood oil is an essential oil obtained from the tree wood of various species of Santalum spp by steam distillation and has a history of medicinal use besides as a fragrance. However, the mechanisms involved in its activity are still unclear. In the present report, Sandalwood oil (S. album) was applied to living human skin explants to evaluate the sustained activity of the oil through gene expression profiling. Transcriptomic analysis showed a number of metabolic pathways and biological activities triggered by treatments previously described for aloe, curcumin and luteolin. No inflammatory responses accompanied the beneficial activities. The most intriguing impact was the natural effect of the retinoic acid (vitamin A) metabolism.
Furthermore, we found that mechanisms normally acting in more specialized cell types such as immune cells, adipocytes, nerve cells, or hair follicles were activated in human skin explants in response to sandalwood oil. Thus, the oil may have the potential of further beneficial activities such as its antibacterial activity among other protective mechanisms.
These results corroborate at a molecular level the rationale for clinical studies with sandalwood oil and support recent studies of patients with eczema (atopic dermatitis) or acne, which is often accompanied by bacterial growth on the skin of Propionibacterium acnes.
Introduction: Obesity is a worldwide public health burden with an increasing prevalence. It is mainly attributed to interactions between diet, sedentary life and genetic predisposition. A chronic accumulation of adipose tissue found in obesity is associated with long-term consequences such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypercholesterolemia, etc. Many skin changes have been reported in obese patients.
Patients and methods: It was carried out from May 2015 to August 2016; 100 (50 males, 50 females) adult patient age (18-60) years old with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2] and one hundred (50 males, 50 females) adult control of age (18-60) years old (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) were included in the study. Serum lipid profile, liver and renal functions, fasting and postprandial blood sugar and clinical examination were done to exclude hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.
Result: significantly more skin diseases were found in an obese patient than control; plantar hyperkeratosis, Acanthosis nigricans, Scalp scale (dandruff), Skin tags, Striae cutis, Intertrigo, Callosity, Candida that strongly correlated the degree of obesity. Many patients had more than two conditions. The most frequent combination observed were Acanthosis nigricans with skin tags, Striae and varicosity are significantly more among obese females than obese males.
Conclusion and recommendation: obese patients experienced more skin diseases than non-obese. Obese females have more skin diseases than obese males. Obese patients with skin diseases should reduce their weight to improve their skin lesions.
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Adult stem cells provide the body with a reservoir from which damaged or used up tissues can be replenished. In organs like the intestines and skin, which need constant rejuvenating, these stem cells are dividing frequently. But in other body structures, including the hair follicles, they are held in a quiescent state–one in which they don’t reproduce until they receive signals from their surroundings that it’s time to regenerate.
It makes intuitive sense that stem cells, being such a valuable resource, would be used sparingly. Yet scientists have limited understanding of how their quiescence is regulated, and are even unsure of its precise biological function. In a study published recently in PNAS, a report on new insights into the biological signals that make hair follicle stem cells oscillate between states of quiescence and regenerative activity.
Our skin is covered with bacteria as part of our normal skin microbiome and typically serves as a barrier that protects us from infection and inflammation. However, when that barrier is broken, the increased exposure to certain bacteria really causes problems,” says Lloyd Miller, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, or S. aureus, is an important human pathogen and the most common cause of skin infections in people. Miller says, “20 to 30 percent of the U.S. population have S. aureus living on their skin or in their nose, and over time, up to 85 percent of people come into contact with it. Eczema is an inflammatory skin disease that affects 20 percent of children and about 5 percent of adults. Ninety percent of patients with eczema have exceedingly high numbers of S. aureus bacteria on their inflamed skin.”
It was previously shown by others that a rare disease called generalized pustular psoriasis (in which the skin erupts into pustules) was caused by a genetic mutation that resulted in the unrestrained activity of a protein normally produced in our skin, called IL-36. This, says Miller, was a clue that IL-36 might have something to do with how bacteria on the skin surface induce inflammation. So they set out to test this idea in mice. They soaked a small gauze pad with S. aureus and applied it to the back skin of normal mice and those that had been genetically engineered to lack the receptor for IL-36 that triggers inflammatory responses. Miller’s team found the normal mice developed scaly and inflamed skin, and the genetically engineered mice lacking IL-36 activity had almost no skin inflammation.
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The technology employs machine-learning software to analyze images of skin lesions and provide doctors with objective data on telltale biomarkers of melanoma, which is deadly if detected too late, but highly treatable if caught early.
The AI system — trained using tens of thousands of skin images and their corresponding eumelanin and hemoglobin levels — could initially reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies, a significant health-care cost. It gives doctors objective information on lesion characteristics to help them rule out melanoma before taking more invasive action.
The technology could be available to doctors as early as next year.
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Efficacy of a Topical Lotion Containing Lactoferricin, Glycerophosphoinositol Lysine and Verbascoside for External Otitis Due to Atopic Dermatitis
The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the general dog population is 3-15% it represents the diagnosis for up to 58% of dogs affected with skin disease. Canine AD has been defined by Halliwell in 2006, as a “genetically predisposed inflammatory and pruritic allergic skin disease with characteristic clinical features, associated with IgE antibodies most commonly directed against environmental allergens”. Indeed, genetic factors and familiar predisposition to the disease have been found to play a major role in its pathogenesis, although the full pathogenesis is still unknown. It is certain that the immunological aberration is usually associated with skin barrier dysfunctions; pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuronal itch stimuli and the animal’s pruritic behaviours establish a vicious cycle of itch that perpetuates and potentially exacerbates the skin lesions and defects in the skin barrier function. The initial clinical feature of canine AD is pruritus, which at the beginning may be associated with no lesion or with primary skin lesions such as erythema and occasionally papules. The mediators that elicit the sensation of pruritus have not been elucidated, but histamine does not appear to be a mediator in dogs in contrast to humans and mice. It is usually a life-long pathology which can be controlled, but it can be seldom cured. The diagnosis of canine AD does not require any analytical test, such as IgE determination and/or intradermal skin test, and it can be done on the basis of pruritus associated with skin lesions. The skin lesions are usually associated with the detachment of corneocytes from live skin. Furthermore, the skin lesions are usually associated with the cytological presence and overgrowth of bacteria (mainly Staphylococcus) and fungal or yeast (mainly Malassezia Pachydermatis) in the damaged region, and it has been purpose that this overgrowth could be also responsible for most of the symptoms. Due to the skin infection, canine AD often develops otitis externa and usually, the signs of atopic otitis were noticed by the owners before the other signs of AD.
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Surgical adhesives have become more prevalent in the Emergency Department (ED) to close #skin lacerations due to their ease of use, more complete surface contact and microbial barrier properties. They also have unique advantages over traditional suturing in the ED. This includes the ease of closure, the speed of closure, decreased or elimination of the need for topical or injectable anaesthetics, and reducing the need for specific aftercare including suture removal. Prior research has found that liquid skin adhesives for laceration closure are less painful and produce similar cosmetic effects when compared to sutures. While skin adhesives offer advantages opportunities for improvement exist. Ease of application is an important characteristic. The viscosity of the adhesive may cause problems if too low, flowing into sensitive areas including eyes and mucous membranes. If too high it may not adequately cover the wound or create a raised area that patients may find irritating, particularly children who may scratch at these raised areas which can increase the risk of infection.
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Full Article: http://bit.ly/2hnIl3W