skin care

Toxin-Producing Bacteria

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Our skin is covered with bacteria as part of our normal skin microbiome and typically serves as a barrier that protects us from infection and inflammation. However, when that barrier is broken, the increased exposure to certain bacteria really causes problems,” says Lloyd Miller, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, or S. aureus, is an important human pathogen and the most common cause of skin infections in people. Miller says, “20 to 30 percent of the U.S. population have S. aureus living on their skin or in their nose, and over time, up to 85 percent of people come into contact with it. Eczema is an inflammatory skin disease that affects 20 percent of children and about 5 percent of adults. Ninety percent of patients with eczema have exceedingly high numbers of S. aureus bacteria on their inflamed skin.”

It was previously shown by others that a rare disease called generalized pustular psoriasis (in which the skin erupts into pustules) was caused by a genetic mutation that resulted in the unrestrained activity of a protein normally produced in our skin, called IL-36. This, says Miller, was a clue that IL-36 might have something to do with how bacteria on the skin surface induce inflammation. So they set out to test this idea in mice. They soaked a small gauze pad with S. aureus and applied it to the back skin of normal mice and those that had been genetically engineered to lack the receptor for IL-36 that triggers inflammatory responses. Miller’s team found the normal mice developed scaly and inflamed skin, and the genetically engineered mice lacking IL-36 activity had almost no skin inflammation.

Read More: http://bit.ly/2eSEXAz

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Molecular profiling of melanoma tumors

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The more times metastasised melanoma has mutated and the patient’s immune system has been activated against a tumour — the better the chances of survival after immunotherapy. This is what emerges from a research collaboration between Lund University in Sweden and Herlev university hospital in Denmark. The findings are now published in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

In simple terms, the treatment entails first removing the patient’s own T cells from a tumour. T cells are the part of the immune system that recognises tumour cells. The patient’s cells are then cultured in the lab and subsequently injected back into the patient.

“The aim is for them to seek out and fight a tumour and the circulating tumour cells,” explains Göran Jönsson, a researcher at Lund University. He is collaborating with Herlev university hospital in Copenhagen, which is one of few hospitals in Europe currently conducting clinical trials of this form of immunotherapy.

Although the treatment outcomes are promising, only just below half of the patients respond to this immunotherapy.

“Between 10 and 20 percent of those affected by advanced melanoma can be cured with a single treatment of adoptive T cell therapy. On the other hand, the treatment is very intensive and has many side effects. It is therefore important to be able to predict which patients stand to benefit from the treatment so that we give it to the right ones,” say, Inge Marie Svane and Marco Donia, physicians at Herlev university hospital and researchers at the University of Copenhagen.

More Info: http://bit.ly/2eSEXAz

 

Skin Complications of Obesity

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Obesity is a worldwide public health burden with an increasing prevalence. It is mainly attributed to interactions between diet, sedentary life and genetic predisposition. A chronic accumulation of adipose tissue found in obesity is associated with long-term consequences such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypercholesterolemia, etc. Many skin changes have been reported in obese patients.

Significantly more skin diseases were found in the obese patient than control; plantar hyperkeratosis, Acanthosis nigricans, Scalp scale (dandruff), Skin tags, Striae cutis, Intertrigo, Callosity, Candida that strongly correlated the degree of obesity. Many patients had more than two conditions. The most frequent combination observed were Acanthosis nigricans with skin tags, Striae and varicosity are significantly more among obese females than obese males.

Obese patients experienced more skin diseases than non-obese. Obese females have more skin diseases than obese males. Obese patients with skin diseases should reduce their weight to improve their skin lesions.

Full article: http://bit.ly/2zcAbHc

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Your Own Blood in Improving Your Look

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Aesthetic dermatology is probably the fastest growing branch of the dermato-venereology. New trends in aesthetic medicine underline the natural resources and the use of non-invasive methods in the treatment, replacing the radical invasive methods and the use of medicaments. The benefits of these new procedures are, very short recovery time from the intervention, better tolerance by the patient, low-cost treatment. One of the innovations that is successfully applied in everyday practices at many dermatological and aesthetic departments and clinics is the treatment with plasma rich in platelets (plasma rich platelets). More recently it is being practiced in dermatology for face rejuvenation or so-called vampire lift, and lately in therapy of alopecia and to treat wounds. In fact, the procedure is performed to drawn the blood from the patient, then the blood is centrifuged and leads to the isolation of pure plasma rich in platelets that is rich in growth factors. The procedure can be practiced for more than once without any risk to the patient. New therapeutic modality for rejuvenation combines fractional CO2 laser with PRP (platelet-rich plasma). The combined treatment maximize the deep ablative effect of CO2 laser, as well as underlining the therapeutic effect of platelet-rich plasma. Laser micro-perforations improve plasma rich in platelets penetration. In this era of technological wonders, probably the most surprising things are the natural resources for the treatment of diseases. One of those breathtaking resources is the autologous plasma which demonstrates the inexhaustible possibilities of the human organism. All that is needed is to identify them and explore together with the increasing use of technical means and the hunger for profit of the modern world. However, even in the era of robotics we will remain just people.

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Full Lenght Article: http://bit.ly/2ldjNzJ

 

Mcl-1 is a Gate Keeper Regulating Cell Death in Cancer Cells

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Selectively inducing cancer cells to death is the goal of cancer therapy. The discovery of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members regulating apoptotic cell death of cancer cells revealed new targets for cancer therapy. Bcl-2 family members can be classified into pro-apoptotic members and anti-apoptotic members among which myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) plays unique roles in regulating cell death and survival in cancer cells. Mcl-1 has a short half-life due to its degradation by multiple E3 ubiquitin-ligases. Under hypoxic conditions, Mcl-1 is up-regulated by activation of growth factor receptor, EGFR promoting cell survival whereas, prolonged/severe hypoxia leads to deactivation of EGFR and Mcl-1 degradation by E3 ubiquitin -ligase FBW7 contributing to cell death. Furthermore, cancer cells upregulated Mcl-1 contributing resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment such as by inhibitors of other antiapoptotic Bcl-2 members Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w. Therefore, Mcl- 1 might be the key player in pro-survival Bcl-2 family members in regulating cancer cell death. This encourages the on-going active development of Mcl-1 specific inhibitors for cancer treatment.

Read more: https://www.scitechnol.com/clinical-experimental-oncology.php

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2-Octyl Cyanoacrylate Skin Adhesive

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Surgical adhesives have become more prevalent in the Emergency Department (ED) to close #skin lacerations due to their ease of use, more complete surface contact and microbial barrier properties. They also have unique advantages over traditional suturing in the ED. This includes the ease of closure, the speed of closure, decreased or elimination of the need for topical or injectable anaesthetics, and reducing the need for specific aftercare including suture removal. Prior research has found that liquid skin adhesives for laceration closure are less painful and produce similar cosmetic effects when compared to sutures. While skin adhesives offer advantages opportunities for improvement exist. Ease of application is an important characteristic. The viscosity of the adhesive may cause problems if too low, flowing into sensitive areas including eyes and mucous membranes. If too high it may not adequately cover the wound or create a raised area that patients may find irritating, particularly children who may scratch at these raised areas which can increase the risk of infection.

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Full Article: http://bit.ly/2hnIl3W

L 17 Cytokine in Psoriasis

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Psoriasis which was considered a disease of abnormal epidermal keratinocyte proliferation later was identified as T helper-1 (Th1) disease because an increase in Th1 pathway cytokines was observed in the lesions and in serum. Currently, a new paradigm has emerged where Th17 cells which produce IL-17 and IL-22, play a central role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The differentiation factors (TGF-beta, IL-6, IL-21), the growth and stabilization factor (IL-23), and the intracellular transcription factors (STAT3, RORγt, and RORalpha) are involved in the development of Th17 cells. IL-17A, part of a group of cytokines, called the IL-17 family plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. IL-17A enhances the expression of S100 proteins, chemokines CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6, and CXCL8, and VEGF in keratinocytes leading to aberrant cell differentiation, proliferation, and immune activation. IL-17A has pleiotropic effects, but its main effect is recruitment and activation of neutrophils, angiogenesis and tissue remodelling by stimulating the production of angiogenic factors and matrix metalloproteases.

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Full article: http://bit.ly/2s0aKDF