The researchers report that, between 2000 and 2010, squamous cell carcinoma (also called cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma) diagnoses increased 263 percent, and basal cell carcinomas increased 145 percent. They compared the 2000-2010 period to two other segments of time: 1976-1984 and 1985-1992.
Women 30-49 experienced the greatest increase in basal cell carcinoma diagnoses; whereas, women 40-59 and 70-79 experienced the greatest increase in squamous cell carcinomas.
Men had an increase in squamous cell carcinomas between the first and second time period studied (1976-1984 and 1985-1992), but experienced a slight decline in the 2000-2010 period. However, for basal cell carcinomas, men over 29 showed similar increases in diagnoses in the 2000-2010 period than the two earlier periods.
The smile may be the most common and flexible expression, used to reveal some emotions, cover others and manage social interactions that have kept communities secure and organized for millennia. But how do we tell one kind of smile from another?
“When distinguishing among smiles, both scientists and laypeople have tended to focus on true and false smiles. The belief is that if you smile when you’re not happy, the smile is false,” says Paula Niedenthal, a psychology professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “But people smile in many different circumstances and during many emotional states. So asserting that only smiles that result from states of happiness are ‘true’ smiles limits our understanding of this important facial expression.”
Niedenthal and colleagues from Cardiff University and the University of Glasgow published a set of experiments that seek to expand our understanding of the human smile this week in the journal Psychological Science, showing three distinct, reliably recognized expressions — smiles of reward, affiliation and dominance — and describing the facial muscle combinations that make them.
Each smile hinges on an anatomical feature known as the zygomaticus major, straps of facial muscle below the cheekbones that pull up the corners of the mouth. But it’s not the only muscle at work.
Participants in the study looked at thousands of computer-generated expressions with random combinations of facial muscles activated — with one exception.
“We varied everything that could be varied in an expression, but our stimuli included some action from the smile muscle, the zygomaticus,” says Magdalena Rychlowska, a postdoctoral researcher at Cardiff. “We asked participants to tell us when they see a reward or affiliative or a dominance smile, and when the expression is not a smile.”
The researchers turned their participant-sorted smiles back on two more sets of observers, checking recognition and social messages until they had recipes for each smile.
For example, a reward smile — “probably the most intuitive,” Niedenthal says, “the kind of smile you would use with a baby, so he will smile back or do things you like” — is a symmetrical hoist of zygomaticus muscles plus a dash of eyebrow lift and some sharp lip pulling.
Affiliative smiles — used to communicate tolerance, acknowledgement, or a bond, and show that you’re not a threat — come with a similar symmetrical upturn to the mouth, but spread wider and thinner with pressed lips and no exposed teeth.
Dominance smiles are used to signify status and manage social hierarchies. They dispense with the symmetry, pairing a bit of lopsided sneer with the raised brows and lifted cheeks typically associated with expressing enjoyment.
“This facial expression has evolved to solve basic tasks of human living in social groups: Thanks, I like this. Don’t worry, I’m not going to hurt you. Hey, I’m in charge here,” Niedenthal says. “There are so many words people use to describe different smiles, but we see them as describing subtypes of a reward situation or an affiliative situation or a situation of negotiating hierarchy and having disdain for someone else.”
With precise physical descriptions of smile types, researchers can better classify subtypes and study the use and effects of smiles in pivotal human interactions.
“We now know which movements we should look for when we describe smiles from real life,” says Rychlowska. “We can treat smiles as a set of mathematical parameters, create models of people using different types of smiles, and use them in new studies.”
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Researchers at the University of Iowa did just that, documenting in real time and in 3-D how melanoma cells form tumors. The cells waste no time finding their cancerous cousins, slashing their way through a lab-prepared gel to quickly join other melanoma cells and form tumors.
Biology professor David Soll and his team used unique computer-assisted 3-D reconstruction software to chronicle how both breast tissue cancer cells and melanoma cells form tumors. The group found the two cancers act similarly in the joining stages of tumor formation. With that knowledge, they screened more than four dozen monoclonal antibodies — unique agents that can stop cells from growing or forming tumors and can be mass produced — before finding two that block tumor creation in both types of cancer.
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It is certainly not from exotic ingredients or brand-name only products. Obtaining great results depend on having a complete skin care routine. This routine should consist of skin-compatible products, targeted for your desired results. For example, if acne is your main focus, purchase products that combat acne. If lines and wrinkles are bothering you, don’t overload and complicate your product usage. Choose items that target your issues.
It’s actually that simple. Complete skin care means you ‘dot the essential I’s and cross the essential T’s’. And here’s where you start.
- Cleanse skin to prepare it to absorb corrective actives.
- Correct skin problems by choosing specific products designed to achieve your results.
- Hydrate to maintain skin health.
- Protect from damaging UV rays that lead to wrinkles and uneven skin pigment.
Ensure each step includes quality products. This is the secret to skin care that is repeatedly missed. Don’t be deceived by advertising claims enticing you to the latest and greatest! Learn why complete skin care is important.
While you’re at it, see my advice pages below. They will guide you to creating an effective routine for the results you want!
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Irritant contact dermatitis accounts for 80% of all contact dermatitis reactions. It occurs when the skin comes in contact with a substance that acts as an irritant. Even though over 2800 substances have been identified as irritants, almost any substance under the right circumstances can act as an irritant.
Skin Barrier in Irritant Contact Dermatitis
The epidermis acts as a barrier with an outer layer composed of dead cells in a water-protein-lipid matrix.
Acute Irritant Contact Dermatitis
Acute irritant contact dermatitis occurs when the skin comes in contact with a strong toxic chemical such as an acid or alkali. The rash occurs within minutes to hours after exposure and in most cases, healing occurs soon after exposure. This rash usually has sharp borders and consists of redness, vesicles, bullae, or skin sloughing.
- Picture of irritant contact dermatitis on the foot
Chronic Cumulative Irritant Contact Dermatitis
Chronic cumulative irritant contact dermatitis is the more common of the two. This dermatitis occurs after repeated exposure to low-level irritants, such as soaps or shampoos. The rash may take weeks, months, or even years to develop.
The rash usually has poorly-defined borders, is very itchy, and consists of redness, scaling, fissuring, and lichenification.
- Picture of irritant contact dermatitis on the hand
Treatment of Irritant Contact Dermatitis
The mainstay of treatment for irritant contact dermatitis is avoiding as many of the irritants as possible.
Other helpful measures include:
- Reduce water exposure – because frequent water exposure actually dries out the skin and disrupts the barrier function of the epidermis, keep water contact to a minimum.
- Moisturize – Frequent moisturization improves the barrier function of the skin. Avoid the use of moisturizers with perfumes since these may also act as an irritant.
- Protection – Because the hands are often affected by irritant contact dermatitis, the use of gloves may help reduce exposure to the irritant.
- Topical steroids – Medium- to high-strength topical steroids may be needed to reduce inflammation and itching.
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