Analysis of Single and Double Leg Squats in Professional Sports People Using Inertial Measurement Units

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The purpose of this study is to examine ankle, knee and hip movement in the sagittal plane and the knee movement in the coronal plane of professional sports people when performing both single and double-legged squats. The use of IMUs enabled accurate measurements in a routine training environment, with the potential for immediate feedback of the data to the trainer/coach/ player. One hundred and two football and fifty nine rugby players performed double leg squats and single leg squats on both legs. IMUs were mounted on the pelvis, thigh and calf of each leg and data captured when the players performed the squats at their training ground. The mean and standard deviation values were calculated and differences of flexion angles between footballers and rugby players were analysed using multi-variate analysis of variance (MANOVA) using SPSS. The results for the double leg squat gave the average hip, knee and ankle angles of 107°, 98° and 25° respectively for both rugby and football players. For the single leg squats there was no difference between the average hip, knee and ankle flexion on the dominant or non-dominant side.

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Link found between neurotransmitter imbalance, brain connectivity in those with autism

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One in 59 children in the United States lives with a form of autism spectrum disorder, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The signs of autism begin in early childhood and can affect individuals differently. However, many with autism share similar symptoms, including difficulties with social communication. Researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine and MU Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders identified a link between a neurotransmitter imbalances and brain connectivity between regions of the brain that play a role in social communication and language. The study found two tests that could lead to more precise medical treatments.

Source: University of Missouri-Columbia

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PET Imaging Agent could provide Early Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

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Activated macrophages, white blood cells that helps protect the body from harmful bacteria and infected cells, are known to play a pivotal role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development. Focusing on the translocator protein (TSPO), which is abundant in activated macrophages, researchers developed fluorine-18 (18F)-FEDAC, a radiolabeled ligand that targets TSPO and binds to it.

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Diagnosing Breast Cancer with an Imaging Pill

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For women, mammograms are a sometimes uncomfortable, but necessary, annual ritual. But this procedure doesn’t always provide accurate results, and it exposes women to X-rays. In a study appearing in ACS’ journal Molecular Pharmaceutics, scientists report that they have developed a non-invasive “disease screening pill” that can make cancerous tumors light up when exposed to near-infrared light in mice without using radiation. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women, according to the American Cancer Society. Mammograms are X-rays of breast tissue that can provide information about a lump’s location and size, but they can’t distinguish between cancerous and benign growths. As a result, up to one in three healthy women undergo unnecessary breast cancer treatments and procedures, according to a recent study by researchers in Denmark.

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Science meets Archaeology with Discovery that Dental X-rays Reveal Vitamin D Deficiency

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The researchers and their colleagues had previously discovered that human teeth hold a detailed and permanent record of serious Vitamin D deficiency, or rickets. That record takes the form of microscopic deformities in dentin, the material that makes up the mass of the tooth, and can be extremely valuable for understanding precisely when people, even those who lived centuries ago, were deprived of sunlight, the main source of Vitamin D. The record is preserved by enamel, which protects teeth from breaking down, unlike bones, which are subject to decay.

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Helping Dental Retainers and Aligners Fight off Bacteria

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The researchers took a polymer sheet made of polyethylene terephthalate that was modified with glycol (PETG) and layered films of carboxymethylcellulose and chitosan on it. This layered film created a super-hydrophilic surface, or a surface that loves water, that prevented bacteria from adhering. When PETG with the film was compared to the bare material, bacterial growth was reduced by 75 percent. The coated plastic also was stronger and more durable, even when tested with artificial saliva and various acidic solutions.

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No more sweet tooth? Scientists switch off pleasure from food in brains of mice

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New research in mice has revealed that the brain’s underlying desire for sweet, and its distaste for bitter, can be erased by manipulating neurons in the amygdala, the emotion center of the brain. The research points to new strategies for understanding and treating eating disorders including obesity and anorexia nervosa.

Source: The Zuckerman Institute at Columbia University

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