Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a naturally occurring short-chained fatty acid produced endogenously within the mammalian brain. This drug has found legal uses as an anesthetic agent and in the treatment of narcolepsy. GHB has been used for alcohol withdrawal syndrome and long term treatment of alcohol addiction. In Italy this drug can be used for the treatment of alcoholism under the supervision of a physician. Research into the nature of these interactions is incomplete and often contradictory. There is evidence that the mechanism in which the 2 drugs interact may be synergistic in nature, such that, when low doses of GHB and alcohol are combined, the resulting effects of the drug combination are markedly greater than the predicted effects based upon each drug administered alone.a patient under long-term treatment with GHB for alcohol addiction who was found dead for choking. The toxicological analysis showed a blood alcohol concentration of 2.6 g/L indicating a condition of acute intoxication and GHB concentration in peripheral blood as 9.85 μg/ml. We show autopsy and toxicological data and briefly discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the interaction.
Substituted phenethylamines and their derivatives are designer drugs that hold a significantposition in the current drug abuse market 2- (4 – chloro – 2,5 – dimethoxyphenyl) – N – (2- methoxybenzyl) ethanamine (25C-NBOMe) is the N- benzyl derivative of the psychedelicchloro – substituted dimethoxy – phenethylamine that is highly potent and invaded recently inthe “drug arena”. Public should remain vigilant as various new substituted phenethylamines continuously appear. Clinicians and medical doctors should strongly discourage the purchase and use of psychedelic drugs and inform the public of all thesevere consequences associated with such a use. The development of proper routine analytical methods for the determination of phenethylamine derivatives and their metabolites in biological fluids is needed for proper toxicological investigation of forensic and clinical cases.
Systemic sclerosis (also scleroderma) is a chronic, autoimmune rheumatic disease affecting the skin and other organs. The hallmark of the disease is thickening/tightening of the skin and inflammation/scarring of various organs/body parts, leading to involvement of the lungs, kidneys, heart, intestinal system, and other areas. There is no cure for scleroderma but effective treatments for some features of the disease are available. The disease is relatively uncommon. About 75,000–100,000 people in the United States have the disease; most are women between the ages of 30 and 50 years. Twins and family members of those with scleroderma or other autoimmune connective tissue diseases, such as lupus, may have a slightly higher risk of developing scleroderma. Children can also get scleroderma, but the disease is different in children from that in adults. Although the underlying cause is unknown, research is shedding more light on the relationship between genes, the immune system and scleroderma.
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Allergic rhinitis usually presents in early childhood and is caused by an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated reaction to various allergens in the nasal mucosa. Sensitization to outdoor allergens can occur in allergic rhinitis in children older than 2 years; however, sensitization to outdoor allergens is more common in children older than 4-6 years. Clinically significant sensitization to indoor allergens may occur in children younger than 2 years. The most common allergens include dust mites, pet danders, cockroaches, molds, and pollens.
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It provides a strong foundation for permanent or removal replacement teeth. There are various advantage of dental implant. For example: They are having improved appearance, improved speech, improved comfort, easier eating, improved self-esteem, durability and convenience. Dental implant depends upon the placement of implants in the jaw and success rate is upto 98%. Dental Implant is a root device and usually made of titanium and used to support restoration of missing teeth. There are generally three types of implants. They are: Endosseous implant, subperiosteal implant and transmandibular implant. Dental implant also called an endosseous implant or fixture. It is a surgical component that interfaces with the bone of jaw or skull to support a dental prosthesis such as a crown, bridge, denture, facial prosthesis or to act as an orthodontic anchor. The basis for modern dental implant is a biologic process called osseointegration where materials, such as titanium, form an intimate bond to bone.
Comparison of Digital Measurement versus Physical Model Measurement: An Analysis of Accuracy and Precision.
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy and precision of digital model measurement to physical measurement of orthodontic models. To assess accuracy, teeth were removed from a typodont and measured individually to obtain a gold standard measurement A stone model of the typodont was then measured n=75 times by both digital and physical measurement and these measurements were compared to the gold standard. To assess precision, patient models (n=27) were measured five times each by each method and assessed via an intraclass correlation coefficient.
Neuropsychology, as one of the neurosciences, has grown to be a separate field of specialization within psychology over about the last 40 years, although there has always been an interest in it throughout the 120-year history of modern scientific psychology. Neuropsychology seeks to understand the relationship between the brain and behaviour, that is, it attempts to explain the way in which the activity of the brain is expressed in observable behaviour studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours. It is seen as a clinical and experimental field of psychology that aims to study, assess, understand and treat behaviours directly related to brain functioning. The term neuropsychology has been applied to lesion studies in humans and animals. It has also been applied to efforts to record electrical activity from individual cells (or groups of cells) in higher primates (including some studies of human patients).It is scientific in its approach, making use of neuroscience, and shares an information processing view of the mind with cognitive psychology and cognitive science.A science concerned with the integration of psychological observations on behaviour and the mind with neurological observations on the brain and nervous system is Neuropsychology.