Neuroimmunology deals with the neurons system and immunology. It is a study of neuroscience and immune system. In this cell are determined to emphasize, sarcasm and uptake in human conversation. Neuroimmunology presents to blooming of new pharmacological treatments for various neurological states. Several types of interactions include both the nervous and immune system exclude the physiological functioning of the two systems in health and diseases.
A 41-year old lady in a reproductive age group presented to us with bilateral pneumothorax. She gave history of right sided pneumothorax prior to this episode which prompted us to further investigate which revealed multiple bilateral cystic lung changes on high resolution computed tomography of the thorax. Transbronchial cryobiopsy of the lung confirmed the diagnosis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis. She was treated conservatively due to financial constraints and discharged two months later once prolonged air leak resolved. This case illustrates the need to investigate the underlying cause of recurrent pneumothorax especially in females due to therapeutic and prognostic implications.
Diagnostic Radiology is a subject or specialty that uses medical imaging to diagnose and treat diseases within the body. A variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to diagnose and/or treat diseases. The exams often use radiation, at levels that have been determined to be safe, to create detailed anatomical images.
The incidence of autoimmune diseases increasing now days. Despite of the development of diagnosis and management of diseases, they remained chronic diseases. The patient’s lifespan expansion requires long-term treatment with harmful agents, such as Metothrexate or other immunosuppressive drugs. The Metothrexate toxicities are based on the duration and cumulative dosing of drug, and the combination with other drugs. Myelosuppression and consequent pancytopenia is the most frequent hematologic toxicity, which occur mostly later during low dose Metothrexate administration. We demonstrate three cases of low dose metothrexate toxicity in older patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. All patients were treated with low dose Metothrexate along more than one year continuously. Two old patients with RA and another with psoriasis developed pancytopenia causing severe neutropenia, cutaneous bleeding, and bruising and septic condition. They required intravenous antibiotic therapy, corticosteroids and limited transfusion dependence as a result of low dose methotrexate. We have assessed the possible causes of Metothrexate toxicities and found that all patients used non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs because of pain and proton-pump inhibitor to avoid development of peptic ulcer. Two patients recovered, another died in septic condition..
Prognostic Implications of Hyaluronic Acid Binding Protein 1 (HABP1) Expression, Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) Loss in Endometrial Carcinoma
Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the 4th commonest female cancer and the commonest gynecological tract malignancy. The prevalence rate is increasing; mainly in developing countries and the prognosis for recurrent or advanced EC are poor. The 5-year survival rates of EC patients are poor especially in women with metastatic EC. These bad outcomes need novel prognostic and predictive markers for EC for better managements of patients. Hyaluronic acid binding protein 1 (HABP1), which has a specific affinity toward hyaluronan (HA), was primarily discovered in cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells. It is a eukaryotic protein conserved and ubiquitously found in multiple organisms; yeasts and humans. HABP1 expression, clinicopathological and prognostic importance in endometrial carcinoma is still not sufficiently clarified. Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) are biological molecules that have been studied as prognostic markers because of their essential physiological rules. Molecular biology advancements allow introduction of these hormone receptors to expect outcome of many cancers, e.g. ovarian, breast and EC.
Cancer Therapy is an ever-increasing array of tools at the disposal of clinicians in their treatment of this disease. However, cancer is a tough opponent in this battle, and current treatments, which typically include radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery, are not often enough to rid the patient of his or her cancer. Cancer cells can become resistant to the treatments directed at them, and overcoming this drug resistance is an important research focus.
Interventional radiology is a medical sub-specialty of radiology utilizing minimal invasive imaging techniques to treat or diagnose the illness in nearly every organ system. The aim behind interventional radiology is to diagnose and treat patients using the least invasive techniques currently available in order to minimize risk to the patient and improve health outcomes. These procedures have less risk, less pain and less recovery time in comparison to open surgery. For example- Angioplasty, Stenting, Atherectomy, Cryoplasty, Thrombolysis, and Embolization etc.