neuroscience

Neuropsychology

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Neuropsychology, as one of the neurosciences, has grown to be a separate field of specialization within psychology over about the last 40 years, although there has always been an interest in it throughout the 120-year history of modern scientific psychology. Neuropsychology seeks to understand the relationship between the brain and behaviour, that is, it attempts to explain the way in which the activity of the brain is expressed in observable behaviour studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours. It is seen as a clinical and experimental field of psychology that aims to study, assess, understand and treat behaviours directly related to brain functioning. The term neuropsychology has been applied to lesion studies in humans and animals. It has also been applied to efforts to record electrical activity from individual cells (or groups of cells) in higher primates (including some studies of human patients).It is scientific in its approach, making use of neuroscience, and shares an information processing view of the mind with cognitive psychology and cognitive science.A science concerned with the integration of psychological observations on behaviour and the mind with neurological observations on the brain and nervous system is Neuropsychology.

Neurologic Complications of Acute Influenza in Adults: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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Classic symptoms of the “flu” caused by influenza include fever, coryza, body aches, and cough. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is unusual. Wiley in his review of emerging infections of the CNS describes three conditions that are necessary for the Influenza virus to go beyond its usual pulmonary presentation to causing severe neurologic disorders. The virus must evade its local site of replication and reach the brain. There can occur by direct infection of nerve endings, specifically the olfactory nerve which has nerve endings in the nasal cavity. How this occurs is unclear, and it is not specific for the Influenza virus as it has been described for other viruses such as adenoviruses, parainfluenza viruses, and West Nile Virus. Secondly, the virus has to infect neurons. Influenza virus can bind to neural cells by sialic acid glycosylation or through endocytosis. Once bound to neurons, neuronal proteases can facilitate cell entry, and utilize cellular machinery to replicate

Trauma-specific Grey Matter Alterations in PTSD

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A quantitative voxel-wise meta-analysis of GM changes in PTSD by different traumas using AES-SDM, and found that GMR regions were generally located in the prefrontal-limbic-striatal system. Notably, subgroup analyses revealed that the GMR patterns were associated with specific trauma categories. This study provides further evidences of different neural correlates underlying PTSD by different traumas, and suggests that stratified diagnosis and treatment of PTSD are necessary in clinics.

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Stress, glucocorticoids and memory: implications for treating fear-related disorders

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Glucocorticoid stress hormones are crucially involved in modulating mnemonic processing of emotionally arousing experiences. They enhance the consolidation of new memories, including those that extinguish older memories, but impair the retrieval of information stored in long-term memory. As strong aversive memories lie at the core of several fear-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias, the memory-modulating properties of glucocorticoids have recently become of considerable translational interest. Clinical trials have provided the first evidence that glucocorticoid-based pharmacotherapies aimed at attenuating aversive memories might be helpful in the treatment of fear-related disorders. Here, we review important advances in the understanding of how glucocorticoids mediate stress effects on memory processes, and discuss the translational potential of these new conceptual insights.

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Disruption of circadian rhythms may contribute to inflammatory disease

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A disruption of circadian rhythms, when combined with a high-fat, high-sugar diet, may contribute to inflammatory bowel disease and other harmful conditions, according to a recent study. “Circadian rhythms, which impose a 24-hour cycle on our bodies, are different from sleep patterns,” the first author of the study explained. “Sleep is a consequence of circadian rhythms.” While circadian rhythm disruption may be common among some, the research suggests that it may be contributing to a host of diseases.

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Neurological disorders and their sequelae

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Neurological disorders and their sequelae are currently estimated to affect as many as a billion people worldwide. These disorders are found among all age groups and in all geographical regions.For many of the neurological disorders there are inexpensive but effective interventions that could be applied on a large scale through primary care.Neurological disorders are wide ranging. They have various causes, complications and outcomes. Many result in additional needs requiring life-long management.The techniques used by neuroscientists have also expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual nerve cells to imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain. Recent theoretical advances in neuroscience have also been aided by the study of neural networks.New techniques, such as special electrodes that can touch the surface of cells, optical imaging, human brain scanning machines, and silicon chips containing artificial brain circuits are all changing the face of modern neuroscience.

Predictors of Outcome in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

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Background: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a high mortality and morbidity rate and is one of the leading causes of death in the intensive care units. The aim of this study was to examine predictors of hospital outcome in adult patients admitted to ICU because of severe TBI. Methods: A retrospective study was carried on patients (n=621) with severe head injury, defined as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 8 who were admitted to the general ICU over a 15-year period (1999-2013). Most important variables that could be correlated with outcome (demographics, cause of injury, GCS, clinical variables and computed tomography–CT scan) were analysed. Results: Total mortality rate was 27.38%. Patients older than 75 years had a mortality rate of 57.14%. 70.05% of the patients were male and 61.99% of cases were due to traffic accidents. Coexisting injuries, found in 52.98% of the patients aggravated the prognosis. Shock developed in 17.23% of the patients and hypoxia in 27.38% were especially aggravating factors