neuroscience

Hypertensive Retinopathy during Pregnancy: Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects at Departmental University Center of Borgou

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To study the epidemiology and clinical aspects of the hypertensive retinopathy among pregnant women with hypertension in the CHUD-B. Material and methods: The study was multicenter and analytical. It concerned all pregnant women admitted to the CHDU-B from April 1st to July 31, 2012, four months. Results: Out of 1327 pregnant women, 158 (11.90%) have presented an arterial hypertension associated with pregnancy. Among these 158 pregnant women with hypertension, 112 have benefited from the ophthalmological examination, for a participation rate of 70.88%. 48 had retinopathy hypertensive either a prevalence of 42.86%. The average age of pregnant women was 28 ± 7.76 years. These women were in the majority illiterate (38%) with a predominance of craftswomen and housewives (66.97% ). The HTA was severe in 54.17% of cases and the hypertensive retinopathy was statistically linked to the severity and chronicity of the HTA. Conclusion: The hypertensive retinopathy during pregnancy is common and affects women around the thirties. It is often related to the severity and chronicity of the HTA.

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Ocular Morbidity among Taxicab Drivers of Common Transport at Parakou (Benin) in 2014

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Objective: The authors had studied the ocular morbidity of taxicab drivers at Parakou in Benin Republic in 2014.
Materials and Methods: The study has been realized in the ophthalmology service of CHUD-Borgou. It was a prospective, transversal analytical and descriptive study. It has concerned all taxicab drivers of the cars stations of Parakou, living in Parakou and detected during the period of study from 1st May to 31 July 2014, that means 03 months.
Results: A total of 133 taxicab drivers all belonging to male have been examined examined. The class age more represented was that of 21-30 years old (37.6%). Among the 133 examined cases, 21 cases (15.79%) have showed incompatible troubles with the car driving. The predominant diseases were conjunctives pathologies (35.1%) dominated by pterygium, refractive errors (24.7%) and neuroretinina pathologies (11.7%).
Conclusion: It comes out from this study that ocular diseases among the taxi drivers are various and potentially cause of blindness. It’s urged to make obligatory full ophthalmology consultation, by eye health care professional to the test of getting the driving license in order to ensure as well the safety of drivers, the passengers as the ones of the users of the public way.

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Addictions and Medicalization of Social Conditions: Context and Paths of Reflexion

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In the psychosocial management of addictions, different social control modalities coexist. We can think of the penal, therapeutic, medical and “laissez-faire” perspectives. The current redefinition of the addiction concept reveals that no single explanation can validate diverse addiction conditions; a multifactorial approach is necessary to grasp the complexity of this phenomenon: addiction to psychotropic substances, love, the Internet, cosmetic surgery, groups, shopping, work, etc.

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SBIRT in Primary Care: The Struggles and Rewards

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Early deduction of individuals with substance misuse is growing in many primary care centers. Program such as the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) offers a way to identify these individuals and prevent problematic use before more severe consequences occur. This paper shares how in 2011 a primary care clinic in the Midwest implemented a SBIRT program within their practices screening 5230 patients for substance misuse.

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The Effect Of Anti-Epileptic Drugs On Visual Evoked Potential In Patients With Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures: A Prospective Case-Controlled Study

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Objective: The primary reason for the present investigation was to decide if hostile to epileptic medications initiate any anomalous changes in the visual evoked potential (VEP) designs. Techniques and material: This imminent case controlled examination was done at the Neurology Department of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (between January 2013 and December 2014). The examination subjects were separated into cases and controls; with the case gather subjects being those epilepsy patients getting antiepileptic drugs. Utilizing the Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs), control and case subjects were contrasted with deference with the estimations of: Latency N75, Latency P100 and Amplitude P100. Results: A factually huge distinction was seen between the controls and the subjects accepting antiepileptic twofold and triple medication treatment; regarding the estimation of Latency P100 (P-esteem 0.042 and 0.044 separately). The examination of fluctuations (ANOVA) uncovered a measurably critical contrast (P-esteem 0.007 and 0.038) concerning the mean scores of Latency N75 and the mean scores of Amplitude P100; in connection to age; between the controls and the case bunch patients accepting hostile to epileptic monotherapy. A measurably critical contrast (p=0.01) was noted as for Latency N75 identified with age, between the controls and patients accepting antiepileptic twofold treatment.

Blunt Head Trauma and Effects

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Blunt head trauma can happen from a blow to the head, and result in serious damage to the brain. According to the National Institutes of Health, the impact can range from a minor bump to severe brain injury. According to braininjury.com, the majority of traumatic brain injuries (61 percent) occurs due to traffic accidents. Even if the head trauma does not result in an open wound, injury can occur to the brain. The effects of blunt head trauma are irreversible and severe, and can interfere with normal brain function.
Types: Two types of head trauma can occur: concussion and contusion. With a concussion, the brain is shaken, while a contusion causes direct injury to the brain. According to braininjury.com, the loss of consciousness from a blunt head trauma leads to even more damage to the brain. In addition, injury can occur to the opposite side of the brain—called contrecoupe—when the head is moving and hits a stationary object. This blunt force results in the opposite side of the brain pulling away from the skull and becoming injured.

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Head trauma

Genes and neural circuits involved for sleep of the fruit fly

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Sleep is a general physiological state developmentally monitored among species, yet the sub-atomic reason for its control is still to a great extent obscure. Because of its electroencephalogram criteria, rest has for some time been explored and depicted for the most part in mammalian species. The natural product fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has developed as a hereditary model living being for contemplating rest. The Drosophila rest is behaviorally characterized, and is firmly directed by circadian and homeostatic procedures, similar to warm blooded animals. Hereditary investigations utilizing Drosophila have effectively recognized various preserved administrative instruments hidden rest amongst flies and well evolved creatures. Distinguishing proof of rest controlling neural circuits is required to additionally illustrate these sub-atomic instruments. Two noteworthy mind districts, the mushroom bodies and the focal complex, assume critical parts in rest control in Drosophila. Important, many definite examinations on neural circuits in these mind areas have obviously demonstrated that particular little gathering of neurons are ensnared in rest homeostasis. Accordingly, late advance in Drosophila rest gives novel bits of knowledge into comprehension the atomic and neural premise of sleep.