Environmental

Differences in the Light Environment at Different Heights between Monolayered Sowing Slope and Multilayered Mixed-Species Plantation Slope

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To maintain a sustainable forest, the existence of saplings plays an important role. The light environment is one of the most important parameters influencing the forest floor vegetation. To restore a natural forest, two techniques were introduced 25 years ago on a slope in the Akandana parking lot, Japan: a mixed-species plantation method and a sowing method. The mixed-species plantation slope is a multilayered forest where the number of saplings was abundant, whereas the sowing slope is a monolayered forest where the dominance of herbaceous species and less number of saplings were confirmed. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the light environment at different heights as well as the daily fluctuation in the light conditions between the two slopes, and to decipher the influence of the light environment on the forest floor vegetation, especially on the saplings.

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Vegetation Cover Change in Yellowstone National Park Detected using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

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The northern Rocky Mountains are a region where future climate warming has the potential to alter vegetation cover and surface water runoff. Results from Landsat satellite image analysis since 1987 in all unburned areas (since the 1880s) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) showed that consistent decreases in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been strongly dependent on periodic variations in peak annual snow water equivalents (SWE). The unprecedented decline in SWE over the past 20+ years has had significant impacts on green vegetation cover across unburned ecosystems of YNP, especially during the year 2001, during which the peak SWE levels declined to an historic low of -1.4 standard deviations of the long-term mean SWE.

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Evaluation of Natural Regeneration and Tree Species Diversity in Miombo Woodlands in Malawi

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A study was conducted to determine the best silvicultural practice to maximise natural regeneration and tree species diversity in miombo woodland in Chongoni Forest Reserve in Malawi. Four trial plots of 50m x 25m with about 10m buffer zone were each subjected to one of the following silvicultural practices: Complete coppice (CC); coppice with standard (CWS); selective thinning (ST); and control was leave it alone (CT). The treatments were completely randomized in three replicates. Twenty years after establishment of the plots an inventory on natural regeneration and tree species diversity was carried out. The results indicate that selective thinning had higher natural regeneration, mainly because of one species, although the differences among silvicultural practices were not significant. Coppice with standard was observed to have the highest tree species diversity. Therefore, coppice with standard has been recommended as one of the future management options in management of miombo woodlands in Malawi in order to maximise tree species diversity whilst maintaining good site cover.

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Diversity and Regeneration Aspects of Medicinal Plants at Devimane, Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka, Central Western Ghats

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Plants form an important source of traditional medicines for a major portion of population living in the tropical countries, since time immemorial. The Western Ghats of India is ranked among the 34 global biodiversity hotspots and is a storehouse of exemplarily rich biodiversity including numerous medicinal plants. However, excessive anthropogenic pressures on this ecosystem have resulted in severe depletion of natural resources and hence, this study was taken up to highlight the medicinal plant diversity and their regeneration aspects in Devimane area of Uttara Kannada district in Karnataka. Forest survey was carried out using a transect-based quadrat method revealing the presence of 348 plant species and about 40% of them are endemic to the Western Ghats-SriLanka region.

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Updates on Saliva Collection Devices for Proteomics

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There has been a rapid growth in the interest and adaptation of saliva as a diagnostic specimen over the last decade, and in the last few years in particular, there have been major developments involving the application of saliva as a clinically relevant specimen. Saliva provides a “window” into the oral and systemic health of an individual, and like other bodily fluids, saliva can be analyzed and studied to diagnose diseases. With the advent of new, more sensitive technologies to detect smaller concentrations of analytes in saliva relative to blood levels, there have been a number of critical developments in the field that we will describe to know more please visit https://www.scitechnol.com/abstract/a-networkbased-analysis-of-proteins-involved-in-hypoxia-stress-and-identification-of-leader-proteins-4982.html

Recent updates on drug abuse analyzed by neuroproteomics

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Currently, drug abuse and addiction represent a global public health concern with about 13.6 million people using illicit drugs in the USA alone. Substance abuse intervenes in normal brain functioning, causing alterations in memory, behavior and neuronal physiology. Although many studies have been conducted to elucidate the mode of action of different drugs, the heterogeneous modes of drug intake led to a complicated profile of drug-induced brain to know more please visit https://www.scitechnol.com/abstract/evaluation-of-tryptic-peptides-from-neisseria-meningitidis-outer-membrane-proteins-pora-and-porbrndigestion-peptides-6670.html

Changes in Vegetation Cover and Productivity in Yosemite National Park (California) Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

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The Sierra Nevada of California is a landscape where large forest fires have been suppressed for over a century and future climate warming has the potential to alter vegetation cover and surface water runoff. Remote sensing over the past 25 years can add new data and insights to this climate impact study. To determine if vegetation cover density and productivity had changed significantly across Yosemite National Park (NP) in California (USA) since the mid-1980s, a time-series of Landsat satellite imagery was analyzed. The study design controlled for annual precipitation amounts, elevation gradients, and vegetation age since the last stand-replacing (wildfire) disturbance in a comparison of Landsat data. Landsat image analysis over the past 20+ years showed that consistent increases in the satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) during relatively dry years were confined to large wildfire areas that burned in the late 1980s and 1990s. Unburned areas of the NP above 2900 m elevation on the Sierra Crest showed extensive decreases of more than -100 units in NDVI between relatively dry years. Several relatively small wildfires that burned in the early 1980s (prior to 1987) were the only areas of the NP that showed notable increases in NDVI (more than +200 units) between relatively wet years. These findings conflict with any hypotheses that NDVI-controlled plant evapotranspiration fluxes and river flows downstream could be markedly altered solely by vegetation cover change over most of the Yosemite NP in coming decades.

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