Does Bladder Cancer Pathology Matter in Prognosis and Treatment?

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A 74-year-old ex- smoker male patient presents to the hospital with the chronic complaint of back pain, and a new complaint of urine retention and dark urine. Lumbar spine MRI showed extensive vertebral metastasis and spinal canal stenosis. Cystoscopy showed a large bladder tumor with evident muscle invasion (clinical T3 stage by cystoscopy). Further evaluation showed liver, osseous, adrenal and retroperitoneal metastasis in addition to diffuse bony involvement.The patient received palliative radiotherapy in addition to 4 cycles of chemotherapy (carboplatin- etoposide) with subsequent progression. The patient was planned to start Nivolumab immunotherapy; however, he passed away before that….to read more:

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