Thyroid disorders have been demonstrated to have devastating effects on pregnancy and fetal growth. Thyroxin is essential for normal growth of fetus, especially brain growth, because secretion of fetal thyroid hormones are not began until 20 weeks’ gestation, therefore, in the first trimester it is completely dependent on maternal thyroxin which is transferred to the fetus. It is a degree of carbohydrate intolerance that is first diagnosed during pregnancy. Increased incidence of organ-specific autoimmunity towards endocrine cells other than β-cells has been described in type 1 diabetes patients and it is believed to be caused by a genetic propensity to autoimmune disorders. Recent studies show that GDM is believed to be caused by β-cell dysfunction that occurs on a background of chronic insulin resistance GDM usually resolves after delivery, up to 70% of them develop overt type 2 diabetes mellitus within 10 years .it is reported increased incidence of thyroid autoimmunity in type 2 diabetes ,thus implying that diabetes can trigger the onset of thyroid autoimmunity of diabetes mellitus .In urban population of Iran is almost the same with its rate in developed countries.
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