Neurological disorders and their sequelae are currently estimated to affect as many as a billion people worldwide. These disorders are found among all age groups and in all geographical regions.For many of the neurological disorders there are inexpensive but effective interventions that could be applied on a large scale through primary care.Neurological disorders are wide ranging. They have various causes, complications and outcomes. Many result in additional needs requiring life-long management.The techniques used by neuroscientists have also expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual nerve cells to imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain. Recent theoretical advances in neuroscience have also been aided by the study of neural networks.New techniques, such as special electrodes that can touch the surface of cells, optical imaging, human brain scanning machines, and silicon chips containing artificial brain circuits are all changing the face of modern neuroscience.