Japan is the only country that has been attacked with atomic bombs. Hundreds of thousands died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The survivors of the bombings have suffered from ongoing radiation-related injury and illnesses. The burst of the nuclear bombs released enormous amounts of radiation. Alpha, beta, and gamma rays and neutrons were emitted by the nuclear fission of the bombs. The area affected by radiation in Hiroshima is estimated to have been 10 × 20 km2. The number of deaths in Hiroshima is estimated at 140,000 out of a total population of 420,000, according to the Hiroshima City government. The number of deaths in Nagasaki is published on the city’s official website and as of August 9, 2016, the official number of deaths from the bombing was 172,230. An 86-page survey report detailing findings on the effects of the use of nuclear weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was published in 2014 . Based on data from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it is clear that people exposed to more than a certain dose of radiation (100 mSv according to the Japanese Government) are at a significantly increased risk of cancer (p<0.05). There may also be genetic effects on their offspring. Even today, some people are afraid of the effects of the bombings. In general, Japanese people can be said to be strongly concerned about the effects of radiation and are very sensitive about the topic of radiation.