Cigarette Smoking, Dependence and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Renewed Approach of an Old Relationship
Cigarette dependence is common in cigarette smokers, but the evaluation of its relationship with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has been rarely performed, particularly for the dimensions of this dependence. The objective of this study is to assess such an association.
Methods: We used data on current smokers from two samples: a cross-sectional national study and a case-control study.
Results: We found a significant association between cigarette dependence and COPD in current smokers (OR between 2 and 4); the results were confirmed in samples of both studies, by multivariate analysis and dose-effect relationship. The results were in favor of an effect that is independent of cumulative smoking dose and of nicotine physiological dependence; moreover, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of COPD per LCD quintile and FTND dependence categories (p<0.001 for trends).
Conclusion: Cigarette dependence is associated with COPD in current smokers, independently of the smoking dose and of nicotine dependence level.