Autism Spectrum Disorder

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Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that alters the organisation and functioning of the nerve cells of the brain which leads to the difficulty in autistic people to have social interactions, verbal and nonverbal communications with repetitive behaviours like spinning and flapping of hands. Though the exact cause of autism is still unknown but somehow some research suggests it as a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some other factors like consumption of cocaine or alcohol during pregnancy or rubella infection also known to contribute for this disorder. Autistic children show less or no response to social stimuli. The early signs of autistic children is delayed babbling, unresponsiveness (does not respond to their name), less eye contact, don’t smile back, repeated flapping of hands, spinning round, constantly repeating the same words.

As per the global records in 2013, about 21.7 million people are affected by autism. It is estimated that about 1 in 100 children is affected by autism. Normally boys are affected four to five times than the girls. In the United States about 1.5 % children are diagnosed with ASD and there is a 30% increase in 2014 as of 2012. The rate of autism in adults of 18 years of age and above is 1.1% in UK. According to reports since 1980 the autistic people has been increasing and the reason is unsolved till date. However some reports suggest children and adult recovering from this disorder.

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